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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence—perceiving, synthesizing, and inferring information—demonstrated by machines, as opposed to intelligence displayed by non-human animals and humans. Example tasks in which this is done include speech recognition, computer vision, translation between (natural) languages, as well as other mappings of inputs.

AI applications include advanced web searchengines (e.g., Google Search), recommendation systems (used by YouTube, Amazon and Netflix), understanding human speech (such as Siri and Alexa), self-driving cars (e.g., Waymo), automated decision-making and competing at the highest level in strategic game systems.

As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require «intelligence» are often removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect.[2] For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from things considered to be AI,[3] having become a routine technology.[4]

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1-c- Daniel Asked if Soledad ,would write down her e-mail address.
2.d-Rudy suggested staying there till the rain stopped.
3.b -Bob asked Mary if she had gone anywhere the previous weekend.
4.a/My father says he has some guests from Boston today .
5.d- The Jude told me that I could take an appeal to a higher court.
6.Did you explain everything to your fiends yesterday?Martha asked.
7.Richard thanked to Bob as he had been very kind to him the day before .
8.He said he couldn’t join Mr than as he was working on his report.
9.The teacher asked Lily to take the posters to
the teachers room.
10.The professor says:”The students will be taking a written exam tomorrow “
11.The old gentleman wanted to know if there were any vacent room in that hotel .
12.D.My grandmother asked ms why I hadn’t called on them the previous week.
12.D.The doctor said that Mrs Davis would recover soon if she took those pills.
13.B.Mother warned Lucy not to go out without raincoat as it was raining.
14.B.Mr Roland asked if the symposium was supposed to be held the next day .
15.C.Samuel told Alice to give him her website address.
16.C. Mother told that if Estella didn’t tell the truth,nobody would trust her.
17.A.The chairman says to Edward ;”Will you hand over the files,please?”
19.D.Martin asked Ken when he was going to file a report about the incident.
20.C. Uncle Fred asked if I had sent a letter to my parents the previous week.
21.B.The doctor says i will feel better tomorrow if i stay in bed .
22.B.Mr Grey asks if they atopted a decision.
23.C.I advised Susan to stay in bed because she looked pale.
24.The jeweler wondered why I didn’t like that bracelet and added that it was very nice.
25.C.The secretary told that there was a mass of letters on her table that morning.
26.B.The little girl asked me if I would help her open the parcel as she couldn’t do it alone.
27.D.Mother asks Ben if he can take his little sister to the park tonight.
28.B.Granny reminded Rita to take an umbrella as it was drizzling.
29.A.Father warned Albert that if he broke his promise ,nobody would respect him.
30.B.The old lady asked me If I would help her get into the car.

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Use the Future Indefinite or the Future Continuous in the negative form.

1. She will be happy if her husband makes the journey alone. 2. We wont begin the next exercise until we finish this one. 3. I wont be thinking about my problems at work when I am on holiday next month. 4. We will move to our new flat while it is being repaired. 5. They wont use their dictionaries at the exam as it is forbidden. 

6. I wont use this dictionary. It’s an awful one. 7. I wont go to his party. I’ve got to finish writing my term-paper today. 8. We wont go to his party. He is a rude and unpleasant person. 9. Tom won’t quit his job. He likes it. 10. Tom wont leave his job until he finds a better one. 11. I wont get out of bed until I feel better. 12. They wont get married until they both find good jobs. 13. I wont study when you come tonight. I never study in the evening. 14. The sun wil not shine this afternoon. The sky is grey. 15. I will do this exercise in writing. It’s too easy.

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About me and my work experience

Today I decided to tell you a little about myself. I am interested and am involved in many things. I like to do everything myself and find solutions to hopeless situations. 

Now I will tell you about the work I have already acquired (this is not my latest work). As you know, IT fields and newly emerging jobs are relevant now, one of which is SMM. When I was 15 years old, together with my friends, we had a business project, which we implemented with honor (EduFood, known to many of you), and as you know, nowadays, in the business plan or every new start-up, Internet advertising plays a big role, correct and competent activity. presentation, as well as the visibility of work, in short, SMM. In our small friendly business team, we all had a responsibility, and no one had mastered this profession at a sufficient level, so I decided that I should take that responsibility on myself as well.

I got interested and collected materials about SMM and participated in seminars and courses, thanks to which I was able to provide a good visibility of our beloved small business. I liked all that and I continued to study the profession. After some time, I received an offer to voluntarily help one of the major Armenian tourist organizations as an SMM specialist. By the way, voluntary work gives great experience and skills, and nowadays it has also started to be important for a person’s future activities. Well, of course, I agreed. From the beginning, it was a bit unclear and even risky, because as I mentioned, the organization was large, and the work was extensive and responsible. And I, in this case, can say that I am quite risky and curious. After a few months of voluntary work, I got an offer to become part of their main team, thanks to which I am currently able to provide for myself, meet my needs and learn to manage my finances, which I think is a very important skill.




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Alfred Nobel, the great Swedish inventor and industrialist, was a man of many contrasts. He was the son of a bankrupt, but became a millionaire; a scientist with a love of literature, he was an industrialist who managed to remain an idealist. 

He made a fortune’ but lived a simple life”, and although cheerful in company he often was sad in private. A lover of mankind, he never had a wife or family to love him; a patriotic son of his native land, he died alone on foreign soil. He invented a new explosive, dynamite, to improve the peacetime industries of mining and building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellowmen. During his useful life he often felt he was useless. World-famous for his works, he was never personally well known, for throughout his life he avoided publicity”. “I do not see”, he once said, “that I have deserved any fame and I have no taste” for it”,om American of an Amero Do you have nt? 4. Woud but since his death his name has brought fame and glory to others. He was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833, but moved to Russia with his parents in 1842, where his father, Emmanuel, made a strong position for himself in the engineering industry. Emmanuel Nobel invented the landmine and made a lot of money from government orders for it during the Crimean War, but went bankrupt soon after. Most of the family returned to Sweden in 1859, where Alfred rejoined them in 1863, beginning his own study of explosives in his father’s laboratory. He had never been to school or university but had studied privately and by the time he was twenty he was a skilful and excellent linguist, speaking Swedish, Russian, German, French and English. Like his father, Alfred Nobel was imaginative and inventive, but he had better luck in business, building up over eighty companies in twent, different countries. Indeed his greatness lay in his outstanding ability to combine the qualities of an original scientist with those of a forward. looking industrialist. But Nobel’s main concern was not to make money or even to make scientific discoveries. Seldom happy, he was always searching for a meaning to life, and from his youth had taken a serious interest in literature and philosophy. Perhaps because he could not find ordinary human love – he never married – he came to care deeply about the whole mankind. He was always generous to the poor: “I’d rather take care of the stomachs of the living than the glory of the dead in the form of stone memorials”, he once said. His greatest wish, however, was to see an end to wars and thus peace between nations, and he spent much time and money working for this cause until his death in Italy in 1896. His famous will, in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding work in physics, chemistry, physiology, medicine, iterature and peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals.

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Ex. 40

1. Are there any letters for me? 2. Someone is knocking on the door. 3. Does anyone here speak German? 4. Any pupil can answer the question. 5. Someone is waiting for you downstairs. 

6. I have got some good news for you. 7. Someone had been here before us. 8. If you have any questions, ask me. 9. I don’t know anything about it. 10. Come any time you like. 11. No one should not neglect one’s duty. 12. This copy is torn. Bring me another one. 13. Put some sugar in my tea, please. 14. He never puts any sugar in his coffee. 15. Someone left the light on in the corridor all night. 16. Let me know if something happens.

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The story of Silicon Valley

It is not made of silicon and it is not a river valley; but forgetting that, Silicon Valley is probably the most famous valley in the world. Although it is not the place where the first computer was built (that was Manchester, England), Silicon Valley, near San Francisco, was the birthplace of the modern computer industry. For this, we can say thank you to scientists at the universities in California, and to the Hippies of the 1960’s. It was in the nineteen-sixties that American «youth culture» really began. California, of course, already existed, but the Sixties Generation rediscovered it.

At the time there were really two different forms of youth culture; the «Beach Boy» culture on the one hand, and the anti-establishment hippies and radical students on the other hand; and they all dreamed of California.For the Beach Boys, that meant southern California, where they could sing about surfing and cars; for the Hippies and radicals, it meant San Francisco, «flower power» and revolutionary new ideas. The campuses at Berkeley and Stanford University, near San Francisco, were hot-beds of new ideas, new technology, new culture, and new ways of living.Young people in Silicon ValleyToday, young people from all over come to Silicon Valley to learn about computers. The high-technology industry was already present around San Francisco. Intel had been founded in 1968, and in the same year the first computer mouse was built at Stamford University. In 1970, Xerox opened a research center in Palo Alto. There were also other electronics companies, like Hewlett Packard, and Fairchild, the world’s first «semiconductor» company.Then, in 1976, an electronics student called Steve Jobs started a small computer company in his garage; he gave it the same name as the Beatles’ record company: Apple.Very soon, more companies, like Seagate and Google appeared. «Silicon Valley» had arrived. There was even a sort of primitive Internet connecting many addresses in Silicon Valley, called the Arpanet.

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  1. I wish I had more money to buy all I want.

2. wish you were more talkative

3. I wish the warmer were weather.

4. I wish I could play football

5. I wish the winter holidays longer